zypper 命令详解

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zypper 命令安装:


-bash/zsh: zypper command not found

# Windows (WSL2)
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install zypper

# Debian
apt-get install zypper

# Ubuntu
apt-get install zypper

# Kali Linux
apt-get install zypper

# Fedora
dnf install zypper

# Raspbian
apt-get install zypper

# Dockerfile
dockerfile.run/zypper

zypper 命令补充说明:


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zypper 是 ZYpp 系统管理库 (libzypp) 的命令行界面。 它可用于安装、更新、删除软件、管理存储库、执行各种查询等。

zypper 命令语法:


zypper [--global-opts] command [--command-opts] [command-arguments]

zypper help command

zypper 命令选项:


General Commands
       help [command]
        Shows help texts. If invoked without any argument (just 'zypper' or 'zypper help'), zypper displays global help text which lists all
        available global options and commands (except those provided only for compatibility with rug).

        If invoked with a command name argument, zypper displays help for the specified command, if such command exists.  Long  as  well  as
        short variants of the command names can be used.

        For your convenience, zypper help can be invoked in any of the following ways:

        $ zypper help [command]
        $ zypper -h|--help [command]
        $ zypper [command] -h|--help

       shell (sh)
        Starts a shell for entering multiple commands in one session.  Exit the shell using "exit", "quit", or Ctrl-D.

        The  shell  support  is  not complete so expect bugs there. However, there's no urgent need to use the shell since libzypp became so
        fast thanks to the SAT solver and its tools (openSUSE 11.0), but still, you're welcome to experiment with it.

   Package Management Commands
       info (if) [options] <name> ...
        Displays detailed informaion about the specified packages.

        For each specified package, zypper finds the best available version in defined repositories and shows information for this package.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

     --requires
        Show also symbols required and pre-required by the package. Available for package and patch type only.

     --recommends
        Show also symbols recommended by the package. Available for package and patch type only.

       Examples:

        Show information about package 'workrave':
        $ zypper info workrave

        Show information about patch 'libzypp':
        $ zypper info -t patch libzypp

        Show information about pattern 'lamp_server':
        $ zypper info -t pattern lamp_server

       install (in) [options] <name|capability|rpm_file_uri> ...
        Install or update packages.

        The packages can be selected by their name or by a capability they provide.

        Capability is: NAME, or "NAME[.ARCH][OP<EDITION>]", where ARCH is architecture code, OP is <, <=, =, >=, or > and  EDITION  is  VER-
        SION[-RELEASE].  For example: zypper=0.8.8-2.

        The  NAME  component  of  a  capability  is  not  only  a  package  name but any symbol provided by packages: /bin/vi, libcurl.so.3,
        perl(Time::ParseDate).  Just remember to quote to protect the special characters from the  shell,  for  example:  zypper>0.8.10  or
        'zypper>0.8.10'

        If  EDITION  is  not  specified,  the  newest installable version will be installed.  This also means that if the package is already
        installed and newer versions are available, it will get upgraded to the newest installable version.

        If ARCH is not specified, or the last dot of the capability name string is not followed by known architecture, the solver will treat
        the  whole  string  as a capability name. If the ARCH is known, the solver will select a package matching that architecture and com-
        plain if such package cannot be found.

        Zypper will report packages that it cannot find. Further, in interactive mode, zypper proceeds with  installation  of  the  rest  of
        requested   packages,   and   it   will abort immediately   in   non-interactive   mode.  In  both  cases  zypper  returns  ZYP-
        PER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND after finishing the operation.

        Zypper is also able to install plain RPM files while trying to satisfy their dependencies using packages from defined  repositories.
        You can install a plain RPM file by specifying its location in the install command arguments either as a local path or an URI. E.g.:

        $ zypper install ~/rpms/foo.rpm http://some.site/bar.rpm

        Zypper will download the files into its cache directory (/var/cache/zypper/RPMS), add this directory as a temporary plaindir reposi-
        tory and mark the respective packages for installation.

        In the install command, you can specify also packages you wish to remove in addition  to  the  packages  you  wish  to  install,  by
        prepending their names by a '-' or '~' character. For example:

        $ zypper install vim -emacs
        $ zypper remove emacs +vim

        will  both  install  vim  and remove emacs. Note that if you choose to use '-' with the first package you specify, you need to write
        '--' before it to prevent its interpretation as a command option.

        $ zypper install -- -boring-game great-game great-game-manual

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of package to install (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

        If pattern is specified, and the pattern is not yet installed, all  packages  required  and  recommended  by  the  pattern  will  be
        installed.   A  pattern  is  considered  installed if all the packages and patterns it requires are installed. Thus a pattern can be
        evalueated as installed even if you do not install the pattern itself, but rather the packages it requries.  Use  zypper  search  -t
        pattern [name] to look for available patterns and zypper info -t pattern <name> to list its contents.

        If  patch is specified, zypper will install and/or remove packages to satisfy specified patch. This is a way to ensure that specific
        bug fix is installed. Like patterns, patches can also be evaluated as installed by installing the packages  needed  to  satisfy  the
        patch.  Use zypper list-patches to look for available needed patches and zypper info -t patch <name> to display detailed information
        about a patch.

        If product is specified, zypper ensures all packages required by the product are installed. Use zypper se -t product [name] to  look
        for available products and zypper info -t product <name> to display detailed information about a product.

       -n, --name
        Select packages by their name, don't try to select by capabilities.

       -f, --force
        Install even if the item is already installed (reinstall)

     --from <alias|name|#|URI>
        Select  packages  from specified repository. If strings specified as arguments to the install command match packages in repositories
        specified in this option, they will be marked for installation. This option currently implies --name, but allows using wildcards for
        specifying packages.

       -C, --capability
        Select packages by capabilities.

       -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
        Automatically  say  'yes' to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to agree with licenses of all
        third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly useful for administators  installing  the  same  set  of
        packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

     --debug-solver
        Create  solver  test  case  for  debugging.  Use this option, if you think the dependencies were not solved all right and attach the
        resulting /var/log/zypper.solverTestCase directory to your bug report. To use this option, simply add it to the problematic  install
        or remove command.

     --no-recommends
        By  default,  zypper  installs  also  packages  recommended by the requested ones.  This option causes the recomended packages to be
        ignored and only the required ones to be installed.

       -R, --no-force-resolution
        Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problem and prompt the user to resolve it manually.

     --force-resolution
        Force the solver to find a solution, even if it would mean removing all packages with unfulfilled requirements.

        The default behavior is 'force' in the interactive mode and 'no-force' in the non-interactive mode. If this option is specified,  it
        takes the preference.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test  the  installation,  do not actually install any package. This option will add the --test option to the rpm commands run by the
        install command.

       Download-and-install mode options:

       -d, --download-only
        Only download the packages for later installation.

     --download-in-advance
        First download all packages, ten start installing.

     --download-in-heaps
        TODO. Download a minimal set of packages that can be installed without leaving the system in broken state, and  install  them.  Then
        download  and  install  another  heap until all are installed. This helps to keep the system in consistent state without the need to
        download all package in advance, which combines the advantages of --download-in-advance and --download-as-needed.

     --download-as-needed
        Download one package, install it immediately, and continue with the rest until all are installed. This is the default mode.

     --download <mode>
        Use the specified download-and-install mode. Available modes are: only, in-advance, in-heaps, as-needed.  See corresponding  --down-
        load-<mode> options for their description.

       More examples:

        Install lamp_server pattern:
        $ zypper install -t pattern lamp_server

        Install GhostScript viewer, but ignore recommended packages:
        $ zypper install --no-recommends gv

        Install version 2.0.6 of virtualbox-ose package (any of the following):
        $ zypper install virtualbox-ose-2.0.6
        $ zypper install virtualbox-ose=2.0.6
        $ zypper install virtualbox-ose = 2.0.6

       source-install (si) <name> ...
        Install specified source packages and their build dependencies.

        This  command  will try to find the newest available versions of the source packages and use rpm -i to install them and the packages
        that are required to build the source package.

        Note that the source packages must be available in repositories you are using.  You can check  whether  a  repository  contains  any
        source packages using the following command:

        $ zypper search -t srcpackage -r <alias|name|#|URI>

       -d, --build-deps-only
        Install only build dependencies of specified packages.

       -D, --no-build-deps
        Don't install build dependencies.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       Examples:

        Install build dependencies of dbus-1 source package:
        $ zypper si -d dbus-1

       verify (ve) [options]
        Check whether dependencies of installed packages are satisfied.

        In case that any dependency problems are found, zypper suggests packages to install or remove to fix them.

     --no-recommends
        By  default,  zypper  installs  also  packages recommended by the requested ones (the ones needed to fix broken dependencies in this
        case).  This option causes the recomended packages to be ignored and only the required ones to be installed.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test the repair, do not actually do anything to the system.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

     --debug-solver
        Create solver test case for debugging. See the install command for details.

       install-new-recommends (inr) [options]
        Install newly added packages recommended by already installed ones.  This  can  typically  be  used  to  install  language  packages
        recently added to repositories or drivers for newly added hardware.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test the installation, do not actually install anything.

     --debug-solver
        Create solver test case for debugging. See the install command for details.

       This command also accepts the download-and-install mode options described
        in the install command description.

       remove (rm) [options] <name> ...

       remove (rm) [options] --capability <capability> ...
        Remove (uninstall) packages.

        The  packages  can be selected by their name or by a capability they provide.  For details on package selection see the install com-
        mand description.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

        Since patches are not installed in sense of copying files or recording a database entry, they cannot  be  uninstalled,  even  though
        zypper  shows  them  as installed. The installed status is determined solely based on the installed status of its required dependen-
        cies. If these dependencies are satisified, the patch is rendered installed.

        Uninstallation of patterns is currently not implemented.

       -n, --name
        Select packages by their name (default).

       -C, --capability
        Select packages by capabilities.

       --debug-solver
        Create solver test case for debugging. See the install command for details.

       -R, --no-force-resolution
        Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problem and prompt the user to resolve it manually.

     --force-resolution
        Force the solver to find a solution, even if it would mean removing all packages with unfulfilled requirements.

        The default behavior is 'force' in the interactive mode and 'no-force' in the non-interactive mode. If this option is specified,  it
        takes the preference.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test the removal of packages, do not actually remove anything. This option will add the --test option to the rpm commands run by the
        remove command.

   Update Management Commands
       list-updates (lu) [options]
        List available updates.

        This command will list only installable updates, i.e. updates which have no dependency problems, or which do not change package ven-
        dor.  This  list is what the update command will propose to install. To list all packages for which newer version are available, use
        --all option.

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

        If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the list-patches command was executed.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -a, --all
        List all packages for which newer versions are available, regardles whether they are installable or not.

     --best-effort
        See the update command for description.

       update (up) [options] [packagename] ...
        Update installed packages with newer versions, where possible.

        This command will not update packages which would require change of package vendor unless the vendor is specified in  /etc/zypp/ven-
        dors.d,  or which would require manual resolution of problems with dependencies. Such non-installable updates will then be listed in
        separate section of the summary as "The following package updates will NOT be installed:".

        To update individual packages, specify one or more package names. You can use the '*' and '?' wildcard  characters  in  the  package
        names to specify multiple packages matching the pattern.

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of package (default: package). See section Package Types for list of available package types.

        If patch is specified, zypper acts as if the patche command was executed.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

     --skip-interactive
        This  will  skip interactive patches, that is, those that need reboot, contain a message, or update a package whose license needs to
        be confirmed.

       -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
        Automatically say 'yes' to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to agree with licenses  of  all
        third-party  software  this  command  will  install. This option is particularly useful for administators installing the same set of
        packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

     --debug-solver
        Create solver test case for debugging. See the install command for details.

     --no-recommends
        By default, zypper installs also packages recommended by the requested ones.  This option  causes  the  recomended  packages  to  be
        ignored and only the required ones to be installed.

       -R, --no-force-resolution
        Do not force the solver to find a solution. Instead, report dependency problem and prompt the user to resolve it manually.

     --force-resolution
        Force the solver to find a solution, even if it would mean removing all packages with unfulfilled requirements.

        The default behavior is 'no-force'. If this option is specified, it takes the preference.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test  the  update,  do not actually install or update any package. This option will add the --test option to the rpm commands run by
        the update command.

     --best-effort
        Do a 'best effort' approach to update. This method does not explicitly select packages  with  best  version  and  architecture,  but
        instead  requests installation of a package with higher version than the installed one and leaves the rest on the dependency solver.
        This method is always used for packages, and is optional for products and patterns. It is not applicable to patches.

       This command also accepts the download-and-install mode options described
        in the install command description.

       list-patches (lp) [options]
        List all available needed patches.

        This command is similar to 'zypper list-updates -t patch'.

        Note that since the arguments of some of the following options are not required, they must be  specified  using  '='  instead  of  a
        space.

       -b, --bugzilla[=#]
        List available needed patches for all Bugzilla issues, or issues whose number matches the given string.

      --cve[=#]
        List available needed patches for all CVE issues, or issues whose number matches the given string.

      --issues[=string]
        Look  for issues whose number, summary, or description matches the specified string. Issues found by number are displayed separately
        from those found by descriptions. In the latter case, use zypper patch-info <patchname> to get information about  issues  the  patch
        fixes.

       -a, --all
        By  default, only patches that are relevant and needed on your system are listed.  This option causes all available released patches
        to be listed. This option can be combined with all the rest of the list-updates command options.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       patch-check (pchk)
        Check for patches. Displays a count of applicable patches and how many of them have the security category.

       See also the EXIT CODES section for details on exit status of 0, 100, and 101 returned by this command.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Check for patches only in the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI.  This option can be used multiple times.

       patch [options]
        Install all available needed patches.

        If there are patches that affect the package management itself, those will be installed first and you will be asked to run the patch
        command again.

        This command is similar to 'zypper update -t patch'.

       -b, --bugzilla <#>
        Install  patch  fixing  a  Bugzilla issue specified by number. Use list-patches --bugzilla command to get a list of available needed
        patches for specific issues.

      --cve <#>
        Install patch fixing a MITRE's CVE issue specified by number. Use list-patches --cve command to  get  a  list  of  available  needed
        patches for specific issues.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

     --skip-interactive
        Skip interactive patches.

     --with-interactive
        Avoid skipping of  interactive patches when in non-interactive mode.

       -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
        See the update command for description of this option.

     --no-recommends
        By  default,  zypper  installs  also  packages  recommended by the requested ones.  This option causes the recomended packages to be
        ignored and only the required ones to be installed.

     --debug-solver
        Create test case for debugging of dependency resolver.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test the update, do not actually update.

       This command also accepts the download-and-install mode options described
        in the install command description.

       dist-upgrade (dup) [options]
        Perform a distribution upgrade. This command applies the state of (specified) repositories onto the system; upgrades (or even  down-
        grades)  installed  packages  to  versions found in repositories, removes packages that are no longer in the repositories and pose a
        dependency problem for the upgrade, handles package splits and renames, etc.

        If no repositories are specified via --from or --repo options, zypper will do the upgrade with all defined repositories. This can be
        a  problem  if  the  system contains conflicting repositories, like repositories for two different distribution releases. This often
        happens if one forgets to remove older release repository after adding a new one, say openSUSE 11.1 and openSUSE 11.2.

        To avoid the above trouble, you can specify the repositories from which to do the upgrade using the --from or --repo  options.   The
        difference  between  these  two  is  that when --repo is used, zypper acts as if it knew only the specified repositories, while with
        --from zypper can eventually use also the rest of enabled repositories to satisfy package dependencies.

     --from <alias|name|#|URI>
        Restricts the upgrade to the specified repositories (the option can be used multiple times) only, but can satisfy dependencies  also
        from the rest of enabled repositories.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

       -l, --auto-agree-with-licenses
        Automatically  say  'yes' to third party license confirmation prompt. By using this option, you choose to agree with licenses of all
        third-party software this command will install. This option is particularly useful for administators  installing  the  same  set  of
        packages on multiple machines (by an automated process) and have the licenses confirmed before.

     --no-recommends
        By  default,  zypper  installs  also  packages  recommended by the requested ones.  This option causes the recomended packages to be
        ignored and only the required ones to be installed.

     --debug-solver
        Create solver test case for debugging. See the install command for details.

       -D, --dry-run
        Test the upgrade, do not actually install or update any package. This option will add the --test option to the rpm commands  run  by
        the dist-upgrade command.

       This command also accepts the download-and-install mode options described
        in the install command description.

       Examples:

        Upgrade the system using 'factory' and 'packman' repository:
        $ zypper install zypper libzypp
        $ zypper dup --from factory --from packman

   Query Commands
       search (se) [options] [querystring] ...
        Search  for  packages  matching  given  strings.  *  (any  substring) and ? (any character) wildcards can also be used within search
        strings.

        Results of search are printed in a table with following columns: S (status), Catalog, Type (type of package),  Name,  Version,  Arch
        (architecture).  The status column can contain the following values: i - installed, v - another version installed, or an empty space
        for neither of the former cases.

        The 'v' status is only shown if the version or the repository matters (--details or --repo is used), and the installed version  dif-
        fers from the one listed or is from a repository other than specified.

        This command accepts the following options:

     --match-all
        Search for a match to all search strings (default).

     --match-any
        Search for a match to any of the search strings.

     --match-substrings
        Matches for search strings may be partial words (default).

     --match-words
        Matches for search strings may only be whole words.

     --match-exact
        Searches for an exact name of the package.

       -d, --search-descriptions
        Search also in summaries and descriptions.

       -C, --case-sensitive
        Perform case-sensitive search.

       -i, --installed-only
        Show only packages that are already installed.

       -u, --uninstalled-only
        Show only packages that are not currently installed.

       -t, --type <type>
        Search  only  for  packages of specified type. See section Package Types for list of available package types. Multiple -t option are
        allowed.

        See also the type-specific query commands like packages, patterns, etc.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Work only with the repository specified by the alias, name, number, or URI. This option can be used multiple times.

     --sort-by-name
        Sort packages by name (default).

     --sort-by-repo
        Sort packages by catalog, not by name.

       -s, --details
        Show all available versions of found packages, each version in each repository on a separate line.

       Examples:

        Search for YaST packages (quote the string to prevent the shell from expanding the wildcard):
        $ zypper se 'yast*'

        Show all available versions of package 'kernel-default':
        $ zypper se -s --match-exact kernel-default

        Look for RSI acronym (case-sensitively), also in summaries and descriptions:
        $ zypper se -dC --match-words RSI

       packages (pa) [options] [repository] ...
        List all available packages or all packages from specified repositories.  Similar to zypper search -s -t package.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Just another means to specify repositories.

       -i, --installed-only
        Show only installed packages.

       -u, --uninstalled-only
        Show only packages which are not installed.

       patches (pch) [options] [repository] ...
        List all available patches from specified repositories, including those not needed. Similar to zypper search -s -t patch.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Just another means to specify repositories.

       patterns (pt) [options] [repository] ...
        List all available patterns or all patterns from specified repositories.  Similar to zypper search -s -t pattern.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Just another means to specify repositories.

       -i, --installed-only
        Show only installed patterns.

       -u, --uninstalled-only
        Show only patterns which are not installed.

       products (pd) [options] [repository] ...
        List all available products or all products from specified repositories.  Similar to zypper search -s -t product, but shows also the
        type of the product (base, add-on).

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Just another means to specify repositories.

       -i, --installed-only
        Show only installed products.

       -u, --uninstalled-only
        Show only products which are not installed.

       what-provides (wp) <capability>
        List all packages providing the specified capability. See also the install command for hint about capabilities.

   Repository Management
       Zypper is able to work with YaST, RPM-MD (yum) software repositories, and plain directories containing .rpm files.

       Repositories  are  primarily  identified using their URI or alias.  Alias serves as a shorthand for the long URI or name of the repository.
       The name of the repository should briefly describe the repository and is shown to the  user  in  tables  and  messages.  The  name  is  not
       required, and if not known, the alias is shown instead. The alias is required and uniquely identifies the repository on the system.

       The  alias,  name,  URI, or the number from zypper repos list can be used to specify a repository as an argument of various zypper commands
       and options like refresh, --repo, or --from.

       Apart from the above, repositories have several other properties which can be set using the commands described in this section below, or by
       manually editing the repository definition files (.repo files, see section FILES).

       addrepo (ar) [options] <URI> <alias>

       addrepo (ar) [options] <FILE.repo>

        Add a new repository specified by URI and assign specified alias to it or specify URI to a .repo file.

        Newly  added  repositories  have  auto-refresh  disabled by default (except for repositories imported from a .repo, having the auto-
        refresh enabled). To enable auto-refresh, use the --refresh option of the modifyrepo command.

        Also, this command does not automatically refresh the newly added repositories.  The repositories will get refreshed when  used  for
        the  first  time,  or  you  can  use  the refresh command after finishing your modifications with *repo commands.  See also METADATA
        REFRESH POLICY section for more details.

       -r, --repo <file.repo>
        Read URI and alias from specified .repo file

       -t, --type <type>
        Type of repository (yast2, rpm-md, or plaindir). There are several aliases defined for these types: yast2 -  susetags,  yast,  YaST,
        YaST2, YAST; rpm-md - repomd, rpmmd, yum, YUM; plaindir - Plaindir.

       -d, --disable
        Add the repository as disabled. Repositories are added as enabled by default.

       -c, --check
        Probe given URI.

       -C, --nocheck
        Don't probe URI, probe later during refresh.

       -n, --name
        Specify descriptive name for the repository.

       -k, --keep-packages
        Enable RPM files caching for the repository.

       -K, --no-keep-packages
        Disable RPM files caching.

       -f, --refresh
        Enable autorefresh of the repository. The autorefresh is disabled by default when adding new repositories.

       Examples:

        Add an HTTP repository, probe it, name it 'Packman 11.1 repo', and use 'packman' as alias:
        $ zypper ar -c -n 'Packman 11.1 repo' http://packman.iu-bremen.de/suse/11.1 packman

        Add repositories from a repo file:
        $ zypper ar http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/zypp:/svn/openSUSE_Factory/zypp:svn.repo
        $ zypper ar myreposbackup.repo

       removerepo (rr) [options] <alias|name|#|URI> ...
        Delete repositories specified by aliases, names, numbers or URIs.

     --loose-auth
        Ignore user authentication data in the URI

     --loose-query
        Ignore query string in the URI

       repos (lr) [options] [repo] ...
        List all defined repositories or show detailed information about those specified as arguments

        If  no  arguments  are  given, the following data are printed for each repository found on the sytem: # (repository number), Enabled
        (whether the repository is enabled), Refresh (whether auto-refresh is enabled for the repository), Type (rpm-md,  yast2,  plaindir),
        Alias (shorthand for Name), and Name. Other columns can be added using the options listed below.

        Repository  number  is  a unique identifier of the repository in current set of repositories. If you add, remove or change a reposi-
        tory, the numbers may change. Keep that in mind when using the numbers with the repository handling commands.  On  the  other  hand,
        using the alias instead of the number is always safe.

        To  show detailed information about specific repositories, specify them as arguments, either by alias, name, number from simple zyp-
        per lr, or by URI; e.g. fB zypper lr factory, or zypper lr 2.

       -e, --export <FILE.repo|->
        This option causes zypper to write repository definition of all defined repositories into a single file in repo file format.  If '-'
        is specified instead of a file name, the repositories will be written to the standard output.

       -u, --uri
        Add base URI column to the output.

       -p, --priority
        Add repository priority column to the output.

       -d, --details
        Show more information like URI, priority, type, etc.

       -U, --sort-by-uri
        Add base URI column and sort the list it.

       -P, --sort-by-priority
        Add repository priority column and sort the list by it.

       -A, --sort-by-alias
        Sort the list by alias.

       -N, --sort-by-name
        Sort the list by name.

       Examples:

        Backup your repository setup:
        $ zypper repos -e myreposbackup.repo

        List repositories with their URIs and priorities:
        $ zypper lr -pu

       renamerepo (nr) <alias|name|#|URI> <new-alias>
        Assign new alias to the repository specified by alias, name, number, or URI.

       Example:

        Rename repository number 8 to 'myrepo' (useful if the repo has some dreadful alias which is not usable on the command line).
        $ zypper nr 8 myrepo

       modifyrepo (mr) <options> <alias|name|#|URI> ...

       modifyrepo (mr) <options> <--all|--remote|--local|--medium-type>
        Modify properties of repositories specified by alias, name, number, or URI or one of the aggregate options.

       -e, --enable
        Enable the repository.

       -d, --disable
        Disable the repository.

       -r, --refresh
        Enable auto-refresh for the repository.

       -R, --no-refresh
        Disable auto-refresh for the repository.

       -p, --priority <positive-integer>
        Set  priority of the repository. Priority of 1 is the highest, the higher the number the lower the priority. Default priority is 99.
        Packages from repositories with higher priority will be preferred even in case there is a higher installable  version  available  in
        the repository with a lower priority.

       -n, --name
        Set a descriptive name for the repository.

       -k, --keep-packages
        Enable RPM files caching.

       -K, --no-keep-packages
        Disable RPM files caching.

       -a, --all
        Apply changes to all repositories.

       -l, --local
        Apply changes to all local repositories.

       -t, --remote
        Apply changes to all remote repositories (http/https/ftp).

       -m, --medium-type <type>
        Apply  changes  to repositories of specified type. The type corresponds to the repository URI scheme identifier like http, dvd, etc.
        You can find complete list of valid types at http://en.opensuse.org/Libzypp/URI.

       Examples:

        Enable keeping of packages for all remote repositories:
        $ zypper mr -kt

        Enable repository 'updates' and switch on autorefresh for the repo:
        $ zypper mr -er updates

        Disable all repositories:
        $ zypper mr -da

       refresh (ref) [alias|name|#|URI] ...
        Refresh repositories specified by their alias, name, number, or URI. If no repositories are specified, all enabled repositories will
        be refreshed.

        See also METADATA REFRESH POLICY section for more details.

       -f, --force
        Force  a  complete  refresh  of  specified repositories. This option will cause both the download of raw metadata and parsing of the
        metadata to be forced even if everything indicates a refresh is not needed.

       -b, --force-build
        Force only reparsing of cached metadata and rebuilding of the database. Raw metadata download will not be forced.

       -d, --force-download
        Force only download of current copy of repository metadata. Parsing and rebuild of the database will not be forced.

       -B, --build-only
        Only parse the metadata and build the database, don't download raw metadata into the cache. This will enable you to  repair  damaged
        database from cached data without accessing network at all.

       -D, --download-only
        Only download the raw metadata, don't parse it or build the database.

       -s, --services
        Refresh also services before refreshing repositories.

       clean (cc) [options] [alias|name|#|URI] ...
        Clean the local caches for all known or specified repositories. By default,
         only caches of downloaded packages are cleaned.

       -m, --metadata
        Clean repository metadata cache instead of package cache.

       -M, --raw-metadata
        Clean repository raw metadata cache instead of package cache.

       -a, --all
        Clean both repository metadata and package caches.

   Service Management
       The  services, addservice, removeservice, modifyservice, and refresh-services commands serve for manipulating services. A service is speci-
       fied by its URI and needs to have a unique alias defined (among both services and repositories).

       Standalone repositories (not belonging to any service) are treated like services, too. The ls command will list them, ms command will  mod-
       ify  them,  etc. Repository specific options, like --keep-packages are not available here, though. You can use repository handling commands
       to manipulate them.

       addservice (as) [options] <URI> <alias>
        Adds a service specified by URI to the system. The alias must be unique and serves to identify the service.

        Newly added services are not refereshed automatically. Use the refresh-services command to refresh them. Zypper does not access  the
        service URI when adding the service, so the type of the services is unknown until it is refreshed.

        This  command  also allows to add also ordinary repositories when used with --type option, where you specify the type of the reposi-
        tory. See the addrepo command for the list of supported repository types.

       -t, --type <TYPE>
        Type of the service (possible values: ris). There are several aliases defined for this type: ris - RIS, nu, NU

       -d, --disable
        Add the service as disabled.

       -n, --name
        Specify descriptive name for the service.

       removeservice (rs) [options] <alias|name|#|URI> ...

        Remove specified repository index service from the sytem.

        Removing an RIS service will result in removing of all of its repositories.

       --loose-auth
        Ignore user authentication data in the URI.

       --loose-query
        Ignore query string in the URI.

       modifyservice (ms) <options> <alias|name|#|URI>
        modifyservice (ms) <options> <--all|--remote|--local|--medium-type> Modify properties of specified services.

       Common Options
        These options are common to all types of services and repositories.

       -d, --disable
        Disable the service (but don't remove it).

       -e, --enable
        Enable a disabled service.

       -r, --refresh
        Enable auto-refresh of the service.

       -R, --no-refresh
        Disable auto-refresh of the service.

       -n, --name
        Set a descriptive name for the service.

       -a, --all
        Apply changes to all services.

       -l, --local
        Apply changes to all local services.

       -t, --remote
        Apply changes to all remote services.

       -m, --medium-type <type>
        Apply changes to services of specified type.

       RIS Service Specific Options
        These options are ignored by services other than Repository Index Services.

       -i, --ar-to-enable <alias>
        Schedule an RIS service repository to be enabled at next service refresh.

       -I, --ar-to-disable <alias>
        Schedule an RIS service repository to be disabled at next service refresh.

       -j, --rr-to-enable <alias>
        Remove a RIS service repository to enable.

       -J, --rr-to-disable <alias>
        Remove a RIS service repository to disable.

       -k, --cl-to-enable
        Clear the list of RIS repositories to enable.

       -K, --cl-to-disable
        Clear the list of RIS repositories to disable.

       services (ls) [options]
        List services defined on the system.

       -u, --uri
        Show also base URI of repositories.

       -p, --priority
        Show also repository priority.

       -d, --details
        Show more information like URI, priority, type.

       -r, --with-repos
        Show also repositories belonging to the services.

       -P, --sort-by-priority
        Sort the list by repository priority.

       -U, --sort-by-uri
        Sort the list by URI.

       -N, --sort-by-name
        Sort the list by name.

       refresh-services (refs) [options] <alias|name|#|URI> ...
        Refreshing a service mean executing the service's special task.

        RIS services add, remove, or modify repositories on your system based on current content of the repository index. Services only man-
        age defined repositories, they do not refresh them. To refresh also repositories, use --with-repos option or the refresh command.

       -r, --with-repos
        Refresh also repositories.

        TODO more info

   Package Locks Management
       Package  locks  serve  the  purpose of preventing changes to the set of installed packages on the system. The locks are stored in form of a
       query in /etc/zypp/locks file (see also locks(5)).  Packages matching this query are then forbidden to change their  installed  status;  an
       installed  package  can't  be removed, not installed package can't be installed.  When requesting to install or remove such locked package,
       you will get a dependency problem dialog.

       locks (ll)
        List currently active package locks.

       addlock (al) [options] <package-name> ...
        Add a package lock. Specify packages to lock by exact name or by a glob pattern using '*' and '?'  wildcard characters.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

       -t, --type <type>
        Lock only packages of specified type (default: package).  See section Package Types for list of available package types.

       removelock (rl) [options] <lock-number|package-name> ...
        Remove specified package lock. Specify the lock to remove by its number obtained with zypper locks or by the package name.

       -r, --repo <alias|name|#|URI>
        Restrict the lock to the specified repository.

       cleanlocks (cl)
        Remove unused locks.

        This command looks for locks that do not currently (with regard to repositories used) lock any package and for  each  such  lock  it
        asks user whether to remove it.

   Other Commands
       versioncmp (vcmp) <version1> <version2>
        Compare  the  versions  supplied  as  arguments and tell whether version1 is older or newer than version2 or the two version strings
        match.

        The default output is in human-friendly form. If --terse global option is used, the result is an integer  number,  negative/positive
        if version1 is older/newer than version2, zero if they match.

       -m, --match
        Takes missing release number as any release. For example
        $ zypper vcmp -m 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
        0.15.3 matches 0.15.3-2
        $ zypper vcmp 0.15.3 0.15.3-2
        0.15.3 is older than 0.15.3-2

       targetos (tos)
        Shows  the  ID string of the target operating system. The string has a form of distroname-arch. The string is determined by libzypp,
        the distroname is read from <current-rootdir>/etc/products.d/baseproduct and the architecture  is  determined  from  uname  and  CPU
        flags.

       licenses
        Prints a report about licenses and EULAs of installed packages to standard output.

        First,  a  list of all packages and their licenses and/or EULAs is shown.  This is followed by a summary, including the total number
        of installed packages, the number of installed packages with EULAs that required a confirmation from the user. Since the  EULAs  are
        not  stored  on the system and can only be read from repository metadata, the summary includes also the number of installed packages
        that have their counterpart in repositories. The report ends with a list of all licenses uses by the installed packages.

        This command can be useful for companies redistributiong a custom distribution (like appliances) to figure out  what  licenses  they
        are bound by.

       ps     After  each  upgrade  or removal of packages, there may be running processes on the system which then use files meanwhile deleted by
        the upgrade.  zypper ps lists these processes, together with the corresponding deleted files, and a service name hint, in case  it's
        a known service.  The list contains the following information:

        * PID  ID of the process
        * PPID   ID of the parent process
        * UID  ID of the user running the process
        * Login  login name of the user running the process
        * Command  command used to execute the process
        * Service  guessed name of the service. If an init script exists for this
       service, you can do "rcservicename restart" to restart it.
        * Files  the list of the deleted files

GLOBAL OPTIONS

       -h, --help
        Help. If a command is specified together with --help option, command specific help is displayed.

       -V, --version
        Print zypper version number and exit.

       -c, --config <file>
        Use  specified  config  file  instead  of the default files.  Other command line options specified together with --config and having
        their counterpart in the config file are still prefered.  The order of preference with --config is as follows:

        * Command line options
        * --config <file>
        * /etc/zypp/zypp.conf

        See also FILES section for more information.

       -v, --verbose
        Increase verbosity. For debugging output specify this option twice.

       -q, --quiet
        Suppress normal output. Brief (esp. result notification) messages and error messages will still be printed, though. If used together
        with conflicting --verbose option, the --verbose option takes preference.

       -A, --no-abbrev
        Do not abbreviate text in tables. By default zypper will try to abbreviate texts in some columns so that the table fits the width of
        the screen. If you need to see the whole text, use this option.

       -t, --terse
        Terse output for machine consumption. Currently not used and provided only for compatibility with rug.

       -s, --table-style
        Specifies table style to use. Table style is identified by an integer number. TODO

       -r, --rug-compatible
        Turns on rug compatibility. See section COMPATIBILITY WITH RUG for details.

       -n, --non-interactive
        Switches to non-interactive mode. In this mode zypper doesn't ask user to type answers to various prompts, but uses default  answers
        automatically. The behaviour of this option is somewhat different than that of options like '--yes', since zypper can answer differ-
        ent answers to different questions. The answers also depend on other options like '--no-gpg-checks'.

       -x, --xmlout
        Switches to XML output. This option is useful for scripts or graphical frontends using zypper. For detailed information  about  this
        feature, see http://en.opensuse.org/Zypper/XML_Output.

       -D, --reposd-dir <dir>
        Use the specified directory to look for the repository definition (*.repo) files.  The default value is /etc/zypp/repos.d.

       -C, --cache-dir <dir>
        Use  an  alternative  directory  to  look  for  the  repository  metadata  cache  database files (solv files).  The default value is
        /var/cache/zypp/solv.

     --raw-cache-dir <dir>
        Use the specified directory for storing raw copies of repository metadata files.  The default value is /var/cache/zypp/raw.

       Repository Options:

     --no-gpg-checks
        Ignore GPG check failures and continue. If a GPG issue occurs when using this option zypper prints and logs a warning and  automati-
        cally  continues  without  interrupting the operation. Use this option with caution, as you can easily overlook security problems by
        using it.

     --gpg-auto-import-keys
        If new repository signing key is found, do not ask what to do; trust and import it automatically. This option causes  that  the  new
        key is imported also in non-interactive mode, where it would otherwise got rejected.

       -p, --plus-repo <URI>
        Use  an  additional repository for this operation. The repository aliased tmp# and named by the specified URI will be added for this
        operation and removed at the end. You can specify this option multiple times.

     --disable-repositories
        Do not read metadata from repositories. This option will prevent loading of packages from repositories, thus making zypper work only
        with the installed packages (if --disable-system-resolvables was not specified).

     --no-refresh
        Do  not auto-refresh repositories (ignore the auto-refresh setting). Useful to save time when doing operations like search, if there
        is not a need to have a completely up to date metadata.

     --no-cd
        Ignore CD/DVD repositories. When this option is specified, zypper acts as if the CD/DVD repositories were not defined at all.

     --no-remote
        Ignore remote repositories like http, ftp, smb and similar. This makes using zypper easier when being offline. When this  option  is
        specified, zypper acts as if the remote repositories were not defined at all.

       Target Options:

       -R, --root <dir>
        Operates  on  a different root directory. This option influences the location of the repos.d directory and the metadata cache direc-
        tory and also causes rpm to be run with the --root option to do the actual installation or removal of packages. Note that  the  ZYpp
        lock is still created in the original system, as well as temporary files. See also the FILES section.

     --disable-system-resolvables
        This  option  serves  mainly for testing purposes. It will cause zypper to act as if there were no packages installed in the system.
        Use with caution as you can damage your system using this option.

FILES

       /etc/zypp/zypper.conf, $HOME/.zypper.conf
        Global (system-wide) and user's configuration file for zypper.  These files are read when zypper starts up and  --config  option  is
        not used.

        User's  settings are prefered over global settings.  Similarly, command line options override the settings in either of these files.
        Settings from zypp.conf (see below) having their counterparts in zypper.conf are overriden by zypper's values. To  sum  it  up,  the
        order of preference is as follows (from highest to lowest):

        * Command line options
        * $HOME/.zypper.conf
        * /etc/zypp/zypper.conf
        * /etc/zypp/zypp.conf

        See the comments in /etc/zypp/zypper.conf for a list and description of available options.

       /etc/zypp/zypp.conf
        ZYpp  configuration file affecting all ZYpp-based applications.  See the comments in the file for desciption of configurable proper-
        ties.  Many of locations of files and directories listed in this section are also configurable via zypp.conf.

        Options having their counterpart in zypper.conf are overriden by zypper's setting.

       /etc/zypp/locks
        File with package lock definitions, see locks(5) manual page for details.  The package lock commands (addlock, removelock, etc.) can
        be used to manipulate this file.

        This file is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /etc/zypp/repos.d
        Directory  containing  repository  definition  (*.repo)  files. You can use the Repository Management commands to manipulate these
        files, or you can edit them yourself. In either case, after doing the modifications, executing zypper  refresh  is  strongly  recom-
        mended.

        This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

        You can use the --reposd-dir global option to use an alternative directory for this purpose or the --root option to make this direc-
        tory relative to the specified root directory.

       /etc/zypp/services.d
        Directory containing service definition (*.service) files.  You can use the Service Management Commands to manipulate theese  files,
        or you can edit them youself. Running zypper refs is recommended after modifications have been done.

        This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/raw
        Directory  for  storing  raw  metadata  contained  in repositories.  This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.  Use the
        --raw-cache-dir global option to use an alternative directory for this purpose or the --root option to make this directory  relative
        to the specified root directory.

       /var/cache/zypp/solv
        Directory containing preparsed metadata in form of solv files.  This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/cache/zypp/packages
        If  keeppackages property is set for a repository (see the modifyrepo command), all the RPM file downloaded during installation will
        be kept here. See also the clean command for cleaning these cache directories.

        This directory is used by all ZYpp-based applications.

       /var/log/zypp/history
        Installation history log.

       ~/.zypper_history
        Command history for the shell.

EXIT CODES

       There are several exit codes defined for zypper for use e.g. within scripts. These codes are defined in header file src/zypper-main.h found
       in  zypper source package. Codes from interval (1-5) denote an error, numbers (100-105) provide a specific information, 0 represents a nor-
       mal successful run. Following is a list of these codes with descriptions.

       0 - ZYPPER_EXIT_OK
        Successfull run of zypper with no special info.

       1 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_BUG
        Unexpected situation occured, probably caused by a bug.

       2 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_SYNTAX
        zypper was invoked with an invalid command or option, or a bad syntax.

       3 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_INVALID_ARGS
        Some of provided arguments were invalid. E.g. an invalid URI was provided to the addrepo command.

       4 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_ZYPP
        A problem reported by ZYPP library. E.g. another instance of ZYPP is running.

       5 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ERR_PRIVILEGES
        User invoking zypper has insufficient privileges for specified operation.

       100 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_UPDATE_NEEDED
        Returned by the patch-check command if there are patches available for installation.

       101 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_SEC_UPDATE_NEEDED
        Returned by the patch-check command if there are security patches available for installation.

       102 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_REBOOT_NEEDED
        Returned after a successfull installation of a patch which requires reboot of computer.

       103 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_RESTART_NEEDED
        Returned after a successfull installation of a patch which requires restart of the package manager itself. This means  that  one  of
        patches to be installed affects the package manager itself and the command used (e.g. zypper update) needs to be executed once again
        to install any remaining patches.

       104 - ZYPPER_EXIT_INF_CAP_NOT_FOUND
        Returned by the install and the remove command in case any of the arguments does not match any of the available (or installed) pack-
        age names or other capabilities.

       105 - ZYPPER_EXIT_ON_SIGNAL
        Returned upon exiting after receiving a SIGINT or SIGTERM.

COMPATIBILITY WITH RUG

       zypper  is  designed to be compatible with rug, which is a command-line interface to the ZENworks Linux Management (ZLM) agent. Compared to
       rug, zypper does not need the ZLM daemon to run, and is intented to provide more and improved functionality. Following is a list of zypper-
       rug  command  aliases,  supported rug command line options, and compatibility notes. See also compatibility notes in descriptions of zypper
       commands.

       To enable rug-compatible behavior, use the -r or --rug-compatible global option with each command.

   Service Management Commands
       ZENworks uses different terminology than ZYpp. ZLM services are ZYpp's repositories and services. Additionally some ZLM services  can  con-
       tain catalogs (rpmmd-type repositories in ZYpp speak).

       Zypper  tries to mimick rug's behavior in its service handling commands when used with the -r global option. It also supports the --catalog
       option for specifying catalogs to work with in current operation (this is an alias for zypper's --repo option).

       rug service-add (sa)
        zypper addservice (as) When used with -r global option, this command probes the type of service or repository at the specified  URI,
        if not explicitly specified. Without -r option the URI is not accessed at all and the URI is added as ZYpp service.

       rug service-delete (sd)
        zypper removeservice (rs)

       rug service-list (sl)
        zypper services (ls)

       rug catalogs (ca)
        zypper repos (lr)

         zypper doesn't include 'Enabled' and 'Refresh' columns and prints rug's 'Status' column with values "Active" or "Disabled" instead.

       rug subscribe
        This  command is not implemented in zypper. Enabling zypper repositories is closest to rug's subscription of catalogs. Thus, you can
        use zypper mr -e <alias|name|#|URI> to enable repositories added by the service.  Use zypper lr (or zypper  ca)  to  list  available
        repositories.

       rug unsubscribe
        See subscribe above, with the difference that -d will be used instead of -e in the zypper mr command.

   Package Management Commands
       rug install (in)
        zypper install (in)

        -y, --no-confirm
         Don't require user interaction. This option is implemented using zypper's non-interactive mode.

        --agree-to-third-party-licenses
         This option is an alias to zypper's --auto-agree-with-licenses option.

        -R, --force-resolution <on|off>
         This option is not available in rug and zypper uses the 'force-resolution' solver mode by default when running in rug-compat-
         ible mode. However, it is possible to turn the forcing of resolution off using this option even in rug-compatible mode.

        --entire-catalog <catalog>
         This option serves for marking all packages from specified catalog for installation. This is achieved by  simulating  'zypper
         in --from <repo> '*''.

       rug remove (rm)
        zypper remove (rm)

        -y, --no-confirm
         Don't require user interaction. This option is implemented using zypper's non-interactive mode.

        -R, --force-resolution <on|off>
         This option is not available in rug and zypper uses the 'force-resolution' solver mode by default when running in rug-compat-
         ible mode. However, it is possible to turn the forcing of resolution off using this option even in rug-compatible mode.

       rug verify (ve)
        zypper verify (ve)

        -y, --no-confirm
         Don't require user interaction. This option is implemented using zypper's non-interactive mode.

       rug update (up) [catalog] ...
        zypper update (up) [package] ...

        Zypper interprets the update command arguments  as  repository  identifiers  in  rug-compatibilty  mode.  The  update  operation  is
        restricted to the specified repositories.

        -y, --no-confirm
         Don't require user interaction. This option is implemented using zypper's non-interactive mode.

        --agree-to-third-party-licenses
         This option is an alias to zypper's --auto-agree-with-licenses option.

        -R, --force-resolution <on|off>
         This option is not available in rug and zypper uses the 'force-resolution' solver mode by default when running in rug-compat-
         ible mode. However, it is possible to turn the forcing of resolution off using this option even in rug-compatible mode.

        -d, --downloade-only
         This option has currently no effect.

        --category
         This option has currently no effect.

       rug search (se)
        zypper search (se)

        Instead of the Type column, rug's Bundle column is printed, however, with no contents.

        -t, --type
         In rug compatibility mode the --type option defaults to package. Zypper searches all package types by default.

      --sort-by-catalog
         Sort packages by catalog, not by name. This option is an alias to zypper's --sort-by-repo option.

   Patch Management Commands
       rug patch-info
        zypper info -t patch

   Pattern Management Commands
       rug pattern-info
        zypper info -t pattern

   Product Management Commands
       rug product-info
        zypper info -t product

   System Commands
       rug ping
        zypper ping

        This command just returns 0 without producing any output or doing anything to the system. Rug's ping command is used to wake up  the
        ZLM  daemon  or  to  check  whether it is up and running. Since zypper does no require ZLM or any other daemon to run, it is safe to
        always return 0 here to indicate it is ready for operation.

   Other Compatibility Notes
       -c, --catalog <catalog>
        This option is an alias to zypper's --repo <alias> and it will restrict the operation of commands like search, install, etc  to  the
        repository specified by the alias.

       -N, --dry-run
        Zypper  uses -D shorthand for this option, but -N is provided for the sake of compatibility. Zypper (libzypp) implements this option
        by passing the --test option to rpm. The option is used in install, remove, update, dist-upgrade (not available in rug), and  verify
        commands.

zypper 命令实例:


zypper 同步可用的软件包和版本列表:

zypper refresh

zypper 安装新的包:

zypper install package

zypper 移除包:

zypper remove package

zypper 将已安装的软件包升级到最新的可用版本:

zypper update

zypper 通过关键字搜索包:

zypper search keyword

zypper 显示与配置的存储库相关的信息:

zypper repos --sort-by-priority

zypper 扩展阅读:




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