ls 命令

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ls 命令语法:


#ls(选项)(参数)
Usage: ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
  -a, --all                  do not ignore entries starting with .
  -A, --almost-all           do not list implied . and ..
      --author               with -l, print the author of each file
  -b, --escape               print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
      --block-size=SIZE      use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below
  -B, --ignore-backups       do not list implied entries ending with ~
  -c                         with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
                               modification of file status information)
                               with -l: show ctime and sort by name
                               otherwise: sort by ctime
  -C                         list entries by columns
      --color[=WHEN]         colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to `always'
                               or can be `never' or `auto'.  More info below
  -d, --directory            list directory entries instead of contents,
                               and do not dereference symbolic links
  -D, --dired                generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
  -f                         do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color
  -F, --classify             append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
      --file-type            likewise, except do not append `*'
      --format=WORD          across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
                               single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
      --full-time            like -l --time-style=full-iso
  -g                         like -l, but do not list owner
      --group-directories-first
                             group directories before files.
                               augment with a --sort option, but any
                               use of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping
  -G, --no-group             in a long listing, don't print group names
  -h, --human-readable       with -l, print sizes in human readable format
                               (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
      --si                   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
  -H, --dereference-command-line
                             follow symbolic links listed on the command line
      --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
                             follow each command line symbolic link
                             that points to a directory
      --hide=PATTERN         do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
                               (overridden by -a or -A)
      --indicator-style=WORD  append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
                               none (default), slash (-p),
                               file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)
  -i, --inode                print the index number of each file
  -I, --ignore=PATTERN       do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
  -k                         like --block-size=1K
  -l                         use a long listing format
  -L, --dereference          when showing file information for a symbolic
                               link, show information for the file the link
                               references rather than for the link itself
  -m                         fill width with a comma separated list of entries
  -n, --numeric-uid-gid      like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
  -N, --literal              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control
                               characters specially)
  -o                         like -l, but do not list group information
  -p, --indicator-style=slash
                             append / indicator to directories
  -q, --hide-control-chars   print ? instead of non graphic characters
      --show-control-chars   show non graphic characters as-is (default
                             unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
  -Q, --quote-name           enclose entry names in double quotes
      --quoting-style=WORD   use quoting style WORD for entry names:
                               literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
  -r, --reverse              reverse order while sorting
  -R, --recursive            list subdirectories recursively
  -s, --size                 print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
  -S                         sort by file size
      --sort=WORD            sort by WORD instead of name: none -U,
                             extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v
      --time=WORD            with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification
                             time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c,
                             or status -c; use specified time as sort key
                             if --sort=time
      --time-style=STYLE     with -l, show times using style STYLE:
                             full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.
                             FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
                             FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to
                             non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
                             if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE
                             takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
  -t                         sort by modification time
  -T, --tabsize=COLS         assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
  -u                         with -lt: sort by, and show, access time
                               with -l: show access time and sort by name
                               otherwise: sort by access time
  -U                         do not sort; list entries in directory order
  -v                         natural sort of (version) numbers within text
  -w, --width=COLS           assume screen width instead of current value
  -x                         list entries by lines instead of by columns
  -X                         sort alphabetically by entry extension
  -1                         list one file per line

SELinux options:

  --lcontext                 Display security context.   Enable -l. Lines
                             will probably be too wide for most displays.
  -Z, --context              Display security context so it fits on most
                             displays.  Displays only mode, user, group,
                             security context and file name.
  --scontext                 Display only security context and file name.
      --help     display this help and exit
      --version  output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with --color=never.  With --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:
 0  if OK,
 1  if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),
 2  if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
GNU coreutils home page: 
General help using GNU software: 
For complete documentation, run: info coreutils 'ls invocation'

ls 命令补充说明:


make命令 是GNU的工程化编译工具,用于编译众多相互关联的源代码问价,以实现工程化的管理,提高开发效率。

ls 命令选项:


-a 显示所有文件及目录 (ls内定将文件名或目录名称开头为"."的视为隐藏档,不会列出)
-l 除文件名称外,亦将文件型态、权限、拥有者、文件大小等资讯详细列出
-r 将文件以相反次序显示(原定依英文字母次序)
-t 将文件依建立时间之先后次序列出
-A 同 -a ,但不列出 "." (目前目录) 及 ".." (父目录)
-F 在列出的文件名称后加一符号;例如可执行档则加 "*", 目录则加 "/"
-R 若目录下有文件,则以下之文件亦皆依序列出

ls 命令参数:


目录:指定要显示列表的目录,也可以是具体的文件。

ls 命令实例:


$ ls       # 仅列出当前目录可见文件
$ ls -l    # 列出当前目录可见文件详细信息
$ ls -hl   # 列出详细信息并以可读大小显示文件大小
$ ls -al   # 列出所有文件(包括隐藏)的详细信息

列出根目录(\)下的所有目录:

# ls /
bin               dev   lib         media  net   root     srv  upload  www
boot              etc   lib64       misc   opt   sbin     sys  usr
home  lost+found  mnt    proc  selinux  tmp  var

列出目前工作目录下所有名称是 s 开头的文件,越新的排越后面 :

ls -ltr s*

输出长格式列表,相当于Linux的 ll 命令

[root@localhost ~]# ls -1

anaconda-ks.cfg
install.log
install.log.syslog
satools

水平输出文件列表

[root@Dev_Test Data]$ls -m
1503651083477_eda13950726e4061aa5837eaace66ef0_res_1652.log, apps, autoload.php,
backvidoe, dsp_speed.log, logs, long, my, mysqldump, opcache, php-beast.log,
request.txt, requset.log, response.log, sources, sql, switchJson.php, test.sh, video,
vivo, vivo-bidding.proto, vivo.php, webapps, xtrabackup, yaconf

修改最后一次编辑的文件,最近修改的文件显示在最上面。

[root@localhost /]# ls -t

tmp  root  etc  dev  lib  boot  sys  proc 

显示递归文件

[root@localhost ~]# ls -R
.:
anaconda-ks.cfg  install.log  install.log.syslog  satools

./satools:
black.txt  freemem.sh  iptables.sh  lnmp.sh  mysql  php502_check.sh  ssh_safe.sh

按照特殊字符对文件进行分类

[root@Dev_Test YafTest]$ls -F
actions/      composer.json  library/  plugins/  test.py*
application/  conf/          models/   public/   vendor/

列出文件并标记颜色分类

[root@Dev_Test YafTest]$ls --color=if-tty
actions      composer.json  library  plugins  test.py
application  conf           models   public   vendor

ls 命令的坑:


find与ls命令合体坑

详见 find 命令



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